summarises the the main idea of the paragraph. Read the first line of
the paragraph and match it with the heading. If it doesn’t match, skim
the paragraph. Focus synonyms.
This is the first paragraph from the full reading you will do. There are only five choices of
paragraph headings for this first one. Follow the procedure shown above,
and choose what you think is the correct answer. The topic sentence is
bold to remind you to focus on that.
A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns
with their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements,
set up to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be
larger than aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large,
while declining ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical”
Yoruba town, but some features are common to most towns.
Match the correct heading to the paragraph.
Types of settlements
Answer: Last one is correct
Read and focus on the topic sentences in the text below and then match the
paragraph headings to their paragraphs. One has been done for you. The reading passage has seven paragraphs: A – G.
Choose the most suitable paragraph headings B – G from the list of
headings on the right. Write the appropriate numbers (i –ix) in the text
boxes below the headings.
NB There are more paragraph headings than paragraphs so you will not use them all.
A. The Yoruba people of Nigeria classify their towns in two ways. Permanent towns with
their own governments are called “ilu”, whereas temporary settlements, set up
to support work in the country are “aba”. Although ilu tend to be larger than
aba, the distinction is not one of size, some aba are large, while declining
ilu can be small, but of purpose. There is no “typical” Yoruba town, but some
features are common to most towns.
B. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls
are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls
was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees.
The markets were generally located centrally and in small
towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete. The market was usually
next to the local ruler’s palace.
C. The palaces were often very large. In the 1930’s, the area of Oyo’s palace covered 17 acres,
and consisted of a series of courtyards surrounded by private and public
rooms. After colonization, many of the palaces were completely or partially
demolished. Often the rulers built two storey houses for themselves using
some of the palace grounds for government buildings.
D. The town is divided into different sections. In some towns these are regular, extending
out from the center of the town like spokes on a wheel, while in others,
where space is limited, they are more random. The different areas are further
divided into compounds called “ile”. These vary in size considerably from
single dwellings to up to thirty houses. They tend to be larger in the North.
Large areas are devoted to government administrative buildings. Newer
developments such as industrial or commercial areas or apartment housing for
civil servants tends to be build on the edge of the town.
E. Houses are rectangular and either have a courtyard in the center or the rooms come off a
central corridor. Most social life occurs in the courtyard. They are usually
built of hardened mud and have roofs of corrugated iron or, in the
countryside, thatch. Buildings of this material are easy to alter, either by
knocking down rooms or adding new ones. And can be improved by coating the
walls with cement. Richer people often build their houses of concrete blocks
and, if they can afford to, build two storey houses. Within compounds there
can be quite a mixture of building types. Younger well-educated people may
have well furnished houses while their older relatives live in mud walled
buildings and sleep on mats on the floor.
F. The builder or the most senior man gets a room either near the entrance or, in a two storied
house, next to the balcony. He usually has more than one room. Junior men get
a room each and there are separate rooms for teenage boys and girls to sleep
in. Younger children sleep with their mothers. Any empty room are used as
storage, let out or, if they face the street, used as shops.
G. Amenities vary. In some towns most of the population uses communal water taps and only the
rich have piped water, in others piped water is more normal. Some areas have
toilets, but bucket toilets are common with waste being collected by a “night
soil man”. Access to water and electricity are key political issues.
Example: Paragraph A: Answer: v
1. Paragraph B________
2. Paragraph C________
3. Paragraph D________
4. Paragraph E________
5. Paragraph F________
6. Paragraph G________
List of paragraph headings
i. Town facilities
ii. Oyo’s palace
iii. Urban divisions
iv. Architectural features
v. Types of settlements [ A ]
vi. Historical foundations
vii. Domestic arrangements
ix. Various changes
x. Government buildings